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The general situation of Changsha


Changsha, the capital of Hunan province, lies at the center of Central China, and it is important for the traffic between the south and the north in China; the east of Changsha is blocked by the Luoxiao Mountain that connects to Jiangxi province, the east of Changsha is blocked by Xuefeng Mountain that connects to Guizhou province. Heng Shan that connects to Guangzhou of Guangdong province blocks the south of Changsha. The north of Changsha is the Dongting Lake plain that connects to Wuhan. It is known asˇ±the tooth of Jingzhou and Hubei, the groat of Guangdong and Yunnan provinceˇ±.
Changsha is a region with the subtropical monsoon damp climate, warm and moist with obvious seasonal variation. It is cold in winter and hot in summer, so the four seasons of a year are distinct. And the spring and autumn are short, the winter and summer are long. Changsha is far from the sea, lying in alluviation basin, the eadge area is high and steep inclining to the north. So the cold air from the north could enter and gather tougher, it is colder than other areas of the same latitude in winter, and it is hotter than other areas of the same latitude in summer. It is known as one of ˇ°four big stoves" in south of the Changjiang River. The annual average temperature is 17.2ˇć in Changsha, it is coldest in january with the average temperature 4.7ˇć.
The jurisdiction of the city of Changsha is, the five areas such as Furong, Tianxin, Yuelu, Kaifu, Yuhua, the three towns such as Changsha, Wangcheng, Ningxiang and the city of Liuyang. There are 36 subdistrict offices, 7O organic towns and 63 villages. The total area of Changsha is 11,819 square kilometers, in which the urban district area is 556.33 square kilometers and the built-up district area is 115 square kilometers. The total population is 5.7687 millions, in which the urban population is 1.6691 million and non- agricultural population is 1.7369 millions.

Natural resource: there are more than 40 kinds of mineral resources, in which, the metal ore is iron, copper, manganese, vanadium, aluminum, zinc, tungsten, gold, silver, uranium and so on. The nonmetallic minerals are coal, phosphorus, sulfur, gypsum, granite, sea-foam, chrysanthemum stone, pottery mud and so on. Especially, sea-foam and chrysanthemum stone are the most valuable in them. The paddy is the main plant of the grain plants here, having two crops a year. The industrial crop is cotton, flue-cured tobacco, ramie, vegetables, tea, flowers and so on. There are many kinds of wild animals and plants, with 102 families and 977 types.
The mountains in west and in east stand tall and erect with the average annual precipitation 1,360 millimeters, it reaches to 1600-2200 millimeters in the eastern mountain district and 1400-1600 millimeters in the western area, in which surface water is the main resource, Xiangjiang River transits the water 74.365 billion cubic meters, the dynamic deposit of the ground water is 1.088 billion cubic meters. The currents of water of Xiangjiang River go down the urban district for 25 kilometers altogether. There are 15 branches rushing into the Xiangjiang River. There is almost leaning north wind in winter and spring and is almost leaning south wind in summer. It is warm and moist all the year round, with the broadleaf green all year round like the fragrant camphor tree and privet, so it is not desolate in winter here. In Tang Dynasty, Du Xunhe wrote a poem sayingˇ°in the end of the winter, where is the best place for boating? I think I felt like making poems most when I stayed on Xiangjiang Riverˇ±.


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